Belter wargame from GDW Games Technological Disruption Of main interests to us is the use of mining as a part of in-situ resource utilizationthat is:
See Article History Coal mining, extraction of coal deposits from the surface of Earth and from underground. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel on Earth. Its predominant use has always been for producing heat energy. It was the basic energy source that fueled the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th centuries, and the industrial growth of that era in turn supported the large-scale exploitation of coal deposits.
Since the midth century, coal has yielded its place to petroleum and natural gas as the principal energy supplier of the world. The mining of coal from surface and underground deposits today is a highly productive, mechanized operation.
Tavantolgoi coal mine, southern Gobi, Mongolia. The Romans in Britain burned coal before ad ; cinders have been found among the ruins of Roman villas and towns and along the Roman wall, especially in Northumberland, near the outcrop of coal seams.
The Hopi Indians of what is now the southwestern United States mined coal by picking and scraping and used it for heating, cooking, and in ceremonial chambers as early as the 12th century ad; in the 14th century they used it industrially in pottery making.
Marco Polo reports its use as widespread in 13th-century China. The Domesday Bookwhich recorded everything of economic value in Englanddoes not mention coal. Thereafter, the name sea coal was applied to all bituminous coal in England.
Later in the century, monks began to mine outcroppings in the north of England. Developments in mine entry Shafts Except for the Chinese, who may have mined coal underground, all the early coal seams were worked from the surface, in fully exposed outcroppings.
In the later Middle Ages, however, exhaustion of outcrop coal in many places forced a change from surface to undergroundor shaftmining. Early shaft mines were little more than wells widened as much as miners dared in the face of danger of collapse.
Shafts were sunk on high ground, with adits—near-horizontal tunnels—for drainage driven into the side of the hill. In England some shallow mine shafts were exhausted as early as the 14th century, making it necessary to go deeper and expand mining at the shaft bottoms.
These remained small operations; a record of shows 70 mines near Bristol, employing workers. Greater depth created many problems.
First, water could no longer simply be drained away. Crude methods were devised to lift it to the surface. A bucket-and-chain device was first powered by men and later by horses; a continuous belt of circular plates was drawn up through a pipe.
Windmills were used for pumps.
But shafts had to be restricted to depths of 90 to metres to feet and a mining radius of metres. Hoisting Raising the coal itself was another problem. Manpower, operating a windlass, was replaced by horsepower; and, as the shafts went deeper, more horses were added.
At Whitehaven incoal was hoisted metres by four horses at the rate of 42—44 metric tons 46—48 tons in nine hours. The introduction of the steam engine to hoist coal was a major turning point for the industry. Small steam-powered windlasses were successfully tried out about About the first cage was used to hoist the loaded car; and from onward advances in coal-mining techniques were rapid.
Ventilation The presence of noxious and flammable gases caused miners to recognize the critical importance of ventilation in coal mines from the earliest days. Natural ventilation was afforded by level drainage tunnels driven from the sloping surface to connect with the shaft. Surface stacks above the shaft increased the efficiency of ventilation; their use continued in small mines until the early 20th century.
The most reliable method, before the introduction of fans, was the use of a furnace at the shaft bottom or on the surface. Despite the hazard of fire and explosion, there were still a large number of furnaces operating, at least in nongassy mines, in the early 20th century.
Open-flame illumination, however, was a much more common cause of explosions until the introduction of the Davy safety lamp aboutin which the flame is enclosed in a double layer of wire gauze that prevents ignition of flammable gases in the air of the mine.
Presence of strong air currents, however, made even the Davy lamp unsafe.The Copiapó mining accident, also known then as the "Chilean mining accident", began on Thursday, 5 August with a cave-in at the San José copper–gold mine, located in the Atacama Desert 45 kilometers (28 mi) north of the regional capital of Copiapó, in northern lausannecongress2018.com-three men, trapped meters (2, ft) underground and 5 kilometers (3 mi) from the mine's entrance via.
Minerals (ISSN X; CODEN: MBSIBI) is an international peer-reviewed open access journal of natural mineral systems, mineral resources, mining, and mineral processing.
Minerals is published monthly online by MDPI.. Open Access - free for readers, with article processing charges (APC) paid by authors or their institutions.; High visibility: indexed by the Science Citation Index Expanded.
Big Data (BD), with their potential to ascertain valued insights for enhanced decision-making process, have recently attracted substantial interest from both academics and practitioners. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF MINE SUBSIDENCE PREDICTION METHODS fields (Fig. 6), whereas predictions form the Hyperbolic Function Method and FEM were reported to be matching well with the mea- sured values. The article is composed of three parts. The first section depicts the rationale for space mining and describes the current and future technological state of this field.
1. Introduction. The rebar rock bolt that is fully encapsulated in a borehole with cement mortar or resin grout is the type of rock bolt widely used in civil and mining engineering.
(c) For surface coal mine facilities, coal refuse reprocessing facilities and coal mining activity facilities, except for bituminous underground mines, permit application fees collected will be deposited in the Surface Mining Conservation and Reclamation Fund.
In addition to Michael Saiki's point on our current reactive measures to safety instead of a proactive one, here are some of the accidents that have occurred and how they continue to show our reactive attitude to safety in the industry.
Coal mining: Coal mining, extraction of coal deposits from the surface of Earth and from underground. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel on Earth. Its predominant use has always been for producing heat energy. It was the basic energy source that fueled the Industrial Revolution of the 18th and 19th.