It frequently happens in history that the odd remark, even addressing a situation truthfully, can be repeated so often over the years that it is blown out of all proportion to historic reality. To some extent this has been the case with the Dual-Monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Because it was not the most powerful nation in Europe and because her military was not the most efficient or cohesive, Austria-Hungary is often portrayed as a decaying, weak, decrepit power that was doomed to fall, war or no war. Yet, if one takes an objective look at Austro-Hungarian society, the economy and even the military and their war record, a rather different picture reveals itself.
This school of thought was particularly associated with American historians. I myself have always supported this second viewpoint which is clear from my Decline and Fall of the Habsburg Empire, There is no need — or indeed space — to survey all recent works on Readers are referred, instead, to an excellent article which does exactly that, namely Samuel Williamson Jr.
In other words Austria-Hungary was to blame.
This is by the Austrian historian, Fritz Fellner, although his key passages, as he freely admits, are based on the work of the British historian, John Leslie. I myself was in lively agreement with the basic idea that only a war could save Austria. How Europe Went to War in According to Clark, however, p.
They chose it — worse, they planned it in advance, in the hope of breaking out of their European isolation and making a bid for world power. They rejected such demands on the grounds that they were irreconcilable with Serbian sovereignty.
The Countdown to War Since the French had also given their support and knew exactly what was going on, both they and the Russians were guilty of deceiving the British into thinking that Germany had decided on war first. McMeekin, therefore, concludes p.
And why should it? Wars do not occur by accident. Armies have to be ordered to mobilize and attack. Two recent books have mirrored the difference between Clark and McMeekin. The outcome of all these works is a new stress on the loyalty of the nationalities and the relative lack of crisis connected with the nationality question.
All sorts of factors are now highlighted ranging from political apathy and compromise through ethnic cross-voting, imperial symbolism, military service, primary education and bilingualism to traditional loyalty to Franz Joseph.
Errinerungen an die Rekrutenzeit im k. The Germans refused to listen to Austrian pleas for a compromise peace and overrode Austrian interests in the Balkans and Poland.
Technically, her army had been placed under German command on all fronts in Septemberbut German lack of information on Austro-Hungarian military arrangements made all decisions in practice reciprocal.
Her backing of German war aims to the very last, however, alienated her from all the major powers, none of which contemplated her survival at the future peace conference p.
It drove the nationalities to seek outright independence rather than federal reform, and drove the allies to endorse their aims. In the event, the gamble failed.
If the consequent prolongation of the war to the point of defeat brought about the collapse of the Monarchy from within, its wartime diplomacy had left it without the support of any Power except defeated Germany. That would have invited a German invasion, backed by German Austrians.
Clearly, therefore, the German alliance was all-important.
Yet, as Gordon A. Given that their 3. InConrad could even ask: Silberstein, The Troubled Alliance. Shanafelt, The Secret Enemy. Austro-Hungarian War Aims in the Balkans, True, at the start of the war, Vienna had few specific war aims in mind apart from defeating Serbia militarily and making her a tributary or dependent state.World War I, also known as the First World War and the Great War, was a global military conflict which took place primarily in Europe from to Over 40 million casualties resulted, including approximately 20 million military and civilian deaths.
Over 60 million European soldiers were mobilized from to Austria-Hungary was outraged, and there were anti-Serbian riots in Sarajevo and Mostar,  but it required weeks of careful planning and considered judgement on the part of the Secret Elite to fan the understandable outrage and bring about the great European war for which they had planned since before Nov 16, · Austria-Hungary had its problems certainly and probably more than her share due to the rise of nationalist sentiment in the multi-national Hapsburg lands but had it not been for the war there is at least some evidence that Austria-Hungary could have survived and that the Hapsburg Empire was not, in fact, a doomed ghost of a bygone lausannecongress2018.com: The Mad Monarchist.
Nevertheless, Austria-Hungary was more urbanized (25%) than its actual opponents in the First World War, like the Russian Empire (%), Serbia (%) or Romania (%). Furthermore, the Austro-Hungarian Empire had also more industrialized economy  and higher GDP per capita  than the Kingdom of Italy, which was .
Austria-Hungary was the final form of the Habsburg Monarchy in Austria and a constitutional union between the Austrian Empire and the Apostolic Kingdom of Hungary that existed from (just.
The area of German land known as "the Saar" was filled with valuable coal fields/mines; at the end of the First World War, coal was equally as important an energy source (and therein source of $$$) as oil is today.