Internet addiction has been considered as a serious threat to mental health and the excessive use of the Internet has been linked to a variety of negative psychosocial consequences.
Just like television, radio and print media, the internet provides the public with information, entertainment, and advertisements.
The internet differs from all other media, however, in at least one important way: About half of all adult Americans take a prescription medication regularly, and one in four have used the internet to learn about prescription medications.
In addition to being a valuable source of information, communication, and recreation, the internet also is being used to disseminate drug-related information and sell controlled substances without prescriptions.
Drug information websites can emphasize the benefits of drug use and provide information on how to manufacture, acquire and use drugs such as marijuana, ecstasy and GHB.
No prescription websites NPWs are online pharmacies that supply consumers with controlled substances without a valid prescription.
There are two general categories of NPWs: Gordon, Forman, and Siatkowski found that the majority of the NPWs identified in monitoring studies conducted since were classified as Portals.
To assess the relative availability of NPWs versus websites that offered addiction health information e. WebMDduring the first two weeks of AugustGordon, Forman, and Siatkowski conducted 27 Google searches using a wide variety of opioid search terms.
On the other hand several opioid medications including Fentanyl, Duragesic, buprenorphine, and Subutex — with and without the no prescription prefix — yielded a majority of addiction health information websites and few or no NPWs.
This provides reassurance that working with credit card and shipping companies are viable mechanisms for identifying ownership of NPWs and potentially suspending their credit card contracts. Businesses wishing to circumvent the U.
Controlled Substances Act may do so by establishing multiple websites, in multiple countries, under multiple online identities. For example, an NPW can be physically located on a computer in Uzbekistan; registered to a business address in Mexico; ship its drugs from Pakistan; deposit payments to a Cayman Island bank — while the owner resides in Miami.
Importantly, all links in this online enterprise can be quickly dismantled and resurrected under a new set of virtual identities. The Global Marketplace and the Controlled Substances Act The benefits of the internet apply equally to everyone, including individuals who commit unlawful acts such as software piracy, virus releases, identity theft, espionage, the sale of child pornography, illegal weapons, and controlled substances.
Online stores can be hosted and registered anywhere in the world, advertising, selling, and delivering products internationally with relative anonymity and convenience — and with little regard for the laws of other countries.
Many countries have drug policies that differ from those of the United States, or have similar laws but less enforcement. Individuals wishing to sell drugs such as opioid medications to customers in the United States can do so through NPWs registered and operated outside the U.
Internet search engines such as Google enable customers of any age to purchase opioids from an international network of online pharmacies.
Because it is illegal to purchase prescription opioids and other controlled substances without prescription, there is limited data on the actual delivery rate of NPWs.
General Accounting Office GAO conducted an investigation in which they attempted to purchase prescription drugs without a prescription.
The GAO purchased a wide range of prescription medications, including 11 purchases of opioids. On July 30,U. Prescriptions based on telephone interviews or online questionnaires are not considered valid. Enforcement Sincethe sale of controlled substances over the internet has been cited in U.
The issue of the abuse of prescription drugs and their sale over the internet has also come under increasing scrutiny from the United Nations International Narcotics Control Board INCB. Later inthe United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs passed a resolution calling for international cooperation between member nations in order to end illegal internet drug sales .
Popular Media Because public awareness about the availability of opioid medications without a prescription is increased by media reports, it is instructive to consider media coverage of NPWs. Beginning in the fall ofthe popular press began describing — and publicizing — the illicit sale of prescription drugs over the internet.
Insurvey results indicated that the annual prevalence rates of Oxycontin use among 8th and 10th graders reached 2.Mar 22, · For the purpose of a comprehensive and inclusive understanding of the potential disorder, in this systematic literature review, Internet addiction will be referred to as encompassing Internet-use related addictions and problematic Internet use, including Internet Gaming Disorder.
Sep 18, · Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update While that line of research overwhelmingly supports the prevalence and risks associated with Internet and Internet related addiction, it is outside the scope of this neuroscience focused review.
In a literature review comparing addictive behaviors and SUDs. Review of Research Literature.
Literature Review. The Internet and Drug Availability. With more than million internet users in the United States and about million individuals going online every week 1 the internet is a vital medium for communication, entertainment, and commerce. Mar 22, · For the purpose of a comprehensive and inclusive understanding of the potential disorder, in this systematic literature review, Internet addiction will be referred to as encompassing Internet-use related addictions and problematic Internet use, including Internet Gaming Disorder.
Review of Related Literature. Review of Related Literature The review of related literatures of this study is made here in the Philippines and in abroad. It is acquired from the internet and unpublished theses.
It is nearly related on the relationship of computer game addiction to interpersonal relationship to adolescents especially, K students. To enrich the background on the subject of. A Review of the Research on Internet Addiction Chien Chou,1,4 Linda Condron,2 and John C.
Belland3 Research indicates that maladaptive patterns of Internet use constitute be-havioral addiction.
This article explores the research on the social effects of tors related to Internet addiction, including Internet use and time, identiﬁable.