Students must analyse a chart, graph, table, map or diagram. Students must highlight key features and present data or information. Students must write over words.
Etymology[ edit ] In the 1st century, the use of the Latin word plagiarius literally "kidnapper" to denote stealing someone else's work was pioneered by the Roman poet Martialwho complained that another poet had "kidnapped his verses".
Plagiary, a derivative of plagiarus, was introduced into English in by dramatist Ben Jonson during the Jacobean Era to describe someone guilty of literary theft.
Legal aspects[ edit ] Although plagiarism in some contexts is considered theft or stealing, the concept does not exist in a legal sense, although the use of someone else's work in order to gain academic credit may meet some legal definitions of fraud.
While both terms may apply to a particular act, they are different concepts, and false claims of authorship generally constitute plagiarism regardless of whether the material is protected by copyright. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of a copyright holder, list of words to avoid in academic writing material whose use is restricted by copyright is used without consent.
Plagiarism, in contrast, is concerned with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation, or the obtaining of academic credit, that is achieved through false claims of authorship. Thus, plagiarism is considered a moral offense against the plagiarist's audience for example, a reader, listener, or teacher.
Plagiarism is also considered a moral offense against anyone who has provided the plagiarist with a benefit in exchange for what is specifically supposed to be original content for example, the plagiarist's publisher, employer, or teacher.
In such cases, acts of plagiarism may sometimes also form part of a claim for breach of the plagiarist's contract, or, if done knowingly, for a civil wrong. In academia and journalism[ edit ] Within academiaplagiarism by students, professors, or researchers is considered academic dishonesty or academic fraud, and offenders are subject to academic censure, up to and including expulsion.
Some institutions use plagiarism detection software to uncover potential plagiarism and to deter students from plagiarizing. Some universities address the issue of academic integrity by providing students with thorough orientations, required writing courses, and clearly articulated honor codes[ citation needed ].
Indeed, there is a virtually uniform understanding among college students that plagiarism is wrong[ citation needed ]. Some individuals caught plagiarizing in academic or journalistic contexts claim that they plagiarized unintentionally, by failing to include quotations or give the appropriate citation.
While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development of the Internetwhere articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of copying the work of others much easier.
No universally adopted definition of academic plagiarism exists  ; however, this section provides several definitions to exemplify the most common characteristics of academic plagiarism. According to Bela Gipp  academic plagiarism encompasses: Gipp is an abridged version of Teddi Fishman's definition of plagiarism, which proposed five elements characteristic of plagiarism.
Fishman, plagiarism occurs when someone: Uses words, ideas, or work products Attributable to another identifiable person or source Without attributing the work to the source from which it was obtained In a situation in which there is a legitimate expectation of original authorship In order to obtain some benefit, credit, or gain which need not be monetary  Furthermore, plagiarism is defined differently among institutions of higher learning and universities: Stanford sees plagiarism as the "use, without giving reasonable and appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person's original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form.
Naval Academy defines plagiarism as "the use of the words, information, insights, or ideas of another without crediting that person through proper citation. Submitting someone's work as their own. Taking passages from their own previous work without adding citations.
Re-writing someone's work without properly citing sources.
Using quotations, but not citing the source. Interweaving various sources together in the work without citing. Citing some, but not all passages that should be cited.
Melding together cited and uncited sections of the piece. Providing proper citations, but fails to change the structure and wording of the borrowed ideas enough. Inaccurately citing the source.
Relying too heavily on other people's work. Fails to bring original thought into the text.
Sanctions for student plagiarism[ edit ] In the academic world, plagiarism by students is usually considered a very serious offense that can result in punishments such as a failing grade on the particular assignment, the entire course, or even being expelled from the institution[ citation needed ].
Generally, the punishment increases as a person enters higher institutions of learning[ citation needed ]. The seriousness with which academic institutions address student plagiarism may be tempered by a recognition that students may not fully understand what plagiarism is.
A study showed that students who were new to university study did not have a good understanding of even the basic requirements of how to attribute sources in written academic work, yet students were very confident that they understood what referencing and plagiarism are.
For cases of repeated plagiarism, or for cases in which a student commits severe plagiarism e. There has been historic concern about inconsistencies in penalties administered for university student plagiarism, and a plagiarism tariff was devised in for UK higher education institutions in an attempt to encourage some standardization of approaches.
Strategies faculty members use to detect plagiarism include carefully reading students work and making note of inconsistencies in student writing, citation errors and providing plagiarism prevention education to students. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
Please help improve this article by introducing citations to additional sources. May There are allegations that some diploma mills[ discuss ] take students' money for essays, then produce a low standard essay or close their websites without providing the purchased essay.
Students then have little time to provide an essay before a deadline. Also diploma mills have allegedly blackmailed students demanding more money than was originally agreed and threatening to reveal plagiarism to the university unless more money is paid.Research & writing for assignments.
University assignments are a big challenge, but we can guide you. Get help with all aspects of your assignment, from research to writing. Below are some common sentences and phrases to avoid in IELTS writing task 2. These sentences have been overused in IELTS essay writing or are considered to be learned expressions which are not accepted by the examiner.
IELTS writing task 2 is an academic essay but it is also a test of your English. The entries for the second run of the Bad Writing Contest have now been tabulated, and we are pleased to announce winners. But first a few tedious words. SO. So the word that received the most nominations this year was already banished, but today it is being used differently than it was in , when nominators were saying, “I am SO down with this list!”.
The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing .
Below are some common sentences and phrases to avoid in IELTS writing task 2. These sentences have been overused in IELTS essay writing or are considered to be learned expressions which are not accepted by the examiner.
IELTS writing task 2 is an academic essay but .