Convergent validity Discriminant validity I have to warn you here that I made this list up. I've never heard of "translation" validity before, but I needed a good name to summarize what both face and content validity are getting at, and that one seemed sensible. All of the other labels are commonly known, but the way I've organized them is different than I've seen elsewhere.
Validity refers to how well a test measures what it is purported to measure. Why is it necessary? While reliability is necessary, it alone is not sufficient.
For a test to be reliable, it also needs to be valid. For example, if your scale is off by 5 lbs, it reads your weight every day with an excess of 5lbs.
The scale is reliable because it consistently reports the Example of validity in research weight every day, but it is not valid because it adds 5lbs to your true weight.
It is not a valid measure of your weight. Types of Validity 1. Face Validity ascertains that the measure appears to be assessing the intended construct under study. The stakeholders can easily assess face validity. If the stakeholders do not believe the measure is an accurate assessment of the ability, they may become disengaged with the task.
If a measure of art appreciation is created all of the items should be related to the different components and types of art. If the questions are regarding historical time periods, with no reference to any artistic movement, stakeholders may not be motivated to give their best effort or invest in this measure because they do not believe it is a true assessment of art appreciation.
Construct Validity is used to ensure that the measure is actually measure what it is intended to measure i.
The experts can examine the items and decide what that specific item is intended to measure. Students can be involved in this process to obtain their feedback.
The questions are written with complicated wording and phrasing. It is important that the measure is actually assessing the intended construct, rather than an extraneous factor.
Criterion-Related Validity is used to predict future or current performance - it correlates test results with another criterion of interest. If a physics program designed a measure to assess cumulative student learning throughout the major. The new measure could be correlated with a standardized measure of ability in this discipline, such as an ETS field test or the GRE subject test.
The higher the correlation between the established measure and new measure, the more faith stakeholders can have in the new assessment tool.
Formative Validity when applied to outcomes assessment it is used to assess how well a measure is able to provide information to help improve the program under study. If the measure can provide information that students are lacking knowledge in a certain area, for instance the Civil Rights Movement, then that assessment tool is providing meaningful information that can be used to improve the course or program requirements.
Sampling Validity similar to content validity ensures that the measure covers the broad range of areas within the concept under study. Not everything can be covered, so items need to be sampled from all of the domains.
When designing an assessment of learning in the theatre department, it would not be sufficient to only cover issues related to acting. Other areas of theatre such as lighting, sound, functions of stage managers should all be included.
The assessment should reflect the content area in its entirety.
What are some ways to improve validity? Make sure your goals and objectives are clearly defined and operationalized. Expectations of students should be written down.Threats to validity include: Selection--groups selected may actually be disparate prior to any treatment..
Mortality--the differences between O 1 and O 2 may be because of the drop-out rate of subjects from a specific experimental group, which would cause the groups to be unequal..
Others--Interaction of selection and maturation and interaction of selection and the experimental variable. In this research design, subjects are randomly assigned into four different groups: experimental with both pre-posttests, experimental with no pretest, control with pre-posttests, and control without pretests.
Module 3: Ensuring Validity Confounding Variables. A confounding variable is an extraneous variable that is statistically related to (or correlated with) the independent variable. Chapter 3: Understanding Test Quality-Concepts of Reliability and Validity Test reliability and validity are two technical properties of a test that indicate the quality and usefulness of the test.
These are the two most important features of a test. You should examine these features when evaluating the suitability of the test for your use. Validity is the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and likely corresponds accurately to the real world based on probability.
The word "valid" is derived from the Latin validus, meaning strong. This should not be confused with notions of certainty nor necessity.
All research reports use roughly the same format. It doesn't matter whether you've done a customer satisfaction survey, an employee opinion survey, a health care survey, or a marketing research survey.