Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elementsand information about the source is kept to the basics. End this element with a period.
References and Further Reading 1. Introduction African philosophy as a systematic study has a very short history. This history is also a very dense one, since actors sought to do in a few decades what would have been better done in many centuries.
As a result, they also did in later years what ought to have been done earlier and vice versa, thus making the early and the middle epochs overlap considerably.
The reason for this overtime endeavor is not far-fetched. Soon after colonialism, actors realized that Africa had been sucked into the global matrix unprepared. During colonial times, the identity of the African was European, his thought system, standard and even his perception of reality were structured by the colonial shadow which stood towering behind him.
It was easy for the African to position himself within these Western cultural appurtenances even though they had no real-time connection with his being. The vanity of this presupposition and the emptiness of colonial assurances manifested soon after the towering colonial shadow vanished.
Now, in the global matrix, it became shameful for the African to continue to identify himself within the European colonialist milieu. For one, he had just rejected colonialism and for another, the deposed European colonialist made it clear that the identity of the African was no longer covered and insured by the European medium.
So, actors realized suddenly that they had been disillusioned and had suffered severe self-deceit under colonial temper. It was the urgent, sudden need to contradict these European positions that led some post-colonial Africans in search of African identity.
So, to discover or rediscover African identity in order to initiate a non-colonial or original history for Africa in the global matrix and start a course of viable economic, political and social progress that is entirely African became one of the focal points of African philosophy.
However, it was George James, another concerned European who attempted a much more ambitious project in his work, Stolen Legacy.
In this work, there were strong suggestions not only that Africa has philosophy but that the so-called Western philosophy, the very bastion of European identity, was stolen from Africa. This claim was intended to make the proud European colonialists feel indebted to the humiliated Africans, but it was unsuccessful.
That Greek philosophy had roots in Egypt does not imply, as some Europeans claim, that Egyptians were dark nor that dark complexioned Africans had philosophy. After these two Europeans, Africans began to attain maturation.
It can be stated that much of these endeavors fall under the early period. For its concerns, the middle period of African philosophy is characterized by the great debate.
Those who seek to clarify and justify the position held in the early epoch and those who seek to criticize and deny the viability of such position entangled themselves in a great debate. Some of the actors on this front include, C.
The preceding epoch eventually gave way to the later period which has as its focus the construction of an African episteme. The former seek to build an African episteme untainted by ethnophilosophy; whereas, the latter seek to do the same by a delicate fusion of relevant ideals of the two camps.
In the end, Critical Reconstructionism ran into a brick wall when it became clear that whatever it produced cannot truly be called African philosophy if it is all Western without African marks.European Imperialism in Africa Essay - Europe, in the late ’s, was starting for a land grab in the African continent.
Around , most of Africa was unexplored, but by , most of Africa, with the lucky exception of Liberia and Ethiopia, was carved up between European powers. In conclusion, imperialism is a vehicle of advancement.
Islam, Muslims and Islamic civilization are under siege in America. Subsequent to the tragic incidents of September 11, Afghanistan and Iraq wars, ISIS’s barbarism and Paris shooting, Islam both as religion and community has witnessed some of the worst attacks upon its heritage and legacy unprecedented in the previous history.
Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that stems from blending between cultures. The effects of acculturation can be seen at multiple levels in both the original (native) and newly adopted (host) cultures. Historically speaking, acculturation is a direct change of one's culture through dominance over another's culture through either military or political.
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Utilizing state of the art digital printing, we produce product packaging. Write a detailed, well-organized essay which answers the following prompt: Analyze the effects of the industrial revolution on imperialism. Your essay should have at least 5 paragraphs. Turnitin provides instructors with the tools to prevent plagiarism, engage students in the writing process, and provide personalized feedback.