Zircon Diamond and Graphite Diamond and graphite are both crystalline forms of the element carbon. Based on this fact, one would think they would be similar in many ways.
Material properties of Diamond and graphite Diamond is a solid form of pure carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal. Solid carbon comes in different forms known as allotropes depending on the type of chemical bond. The two most common allotropes of pure carbon are diamond and graphite.
In graphite the bonds are sp2 orbital hybrids and the atoms form in planes with each bound to three nearest neighbors degrees apart. In diamond they are sp3 and the atoms form tetrahedra with each bound to four nearest neighbors.
Thus, graphite is much softer than diamond. However, the stronger bonds make graphite less flammable. Thermodynamics Theoretically predicted phase diagram of carbon The equilibrium pressure and temperature conditions for a transition between graphite and diamond is well established theoretically and experimentally.
Rapid conversion of graphite Diamond and graphite diamond requires pressures well above the equilibrium line: Crystallographic defects in diamond Diamond unit cell, showing the tetrahedral structure.
The most common crystal structure of diamond is called diamond cubic. It is formed of unit cells see the figure stacked together. Although there are 18 atoms in the figure, each corner atom is shared by eight unit cells and each atom in the center of a face is shared by two, so there are a total of eight atoms per unit cell.
Diamonds can also form an ABAB As diamond's crystal structure has a cubic arrangement of the atoms, they have many facets that belong to a cubeoctahedron, rhombicosidodecahedrontetrakis hexahedron or disdyakis dodecahedron.
The crystals can have rounded off and unexpressive edges and can be elongated. Diamonds especially those with rounded crystal faces are commonly found coated in nyf, an opaque gum-like skin. They are referred to as opaque if the fibers grow from a clear substrate or fibrous if they occupy the entire crystal.
Their colors range from yellow to green or gray, sometimes with cloud-like white to gray impurities. Their most common shape is cuboidal, but they can also form octahedra, dodecahedra, macles or combined shapes.
The structure is the result of numerous impurities with sizes between 1 and 5 microns. These diamonds probably formed in kimberlite magma and sampled the volatiles. There have been attempts to classify them into groups with names such as boartballasstewartite and framesite, but there is no widely accepted set of criteria.
There are many theories for its origin, including formation in a star, but no consensus. Diamond is the hardest known natural material on both the Vickers scale and the Mohs scale. Diamond's great hardness relative to other materials has been known since antiquity, and is the source of its name.
Diamond hardness depends on its purity, crystalline perfection and orientation: The hardness of diamond contributes to its suitability as a gemstone.
Because it can only be scratched by other diamonds, it maintains its polish extremely well. Unlike many other gems, it is well-suited to daily wear because of its resistance to scratching—perhaps contributing to its popularity as the preferred gem in engagement or wedding ringswhich are often worn every day.
These diamonds are generally small, perfect to semiperfect octahedra, and are used to polish other diamonds. Their hardness is associated with the crystal growth form, which is single-stage crystal growth.
Most other diamonds show more evidence of multiple growth stages, which produce inclusions, flaws, and defect planes in the crystal lattice, all of which affect their hardness.
It is possible to treat regular diamonds under a combination of high pressure and high temperature to produce diamonds that are harder than the diamonds used in hardness gauges.
The toughness of natural diamond has been measured as 7. As with any material, the macroscopic geometry of a diamond contributes to its resistance to breakage. Diamond has a cleavage plane and is therefore more fragile in some orientations than others.lausannecongress2018.com is the ultimate sports apparel store and Fan Gear Shop.
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The difference in the properties of diamond and graphite can be easily explained in terms their structures.
Diamond is vary hard whereas graphite is soft: In diamond there is a three dimensional network of strong covalent bonds. This makes diamond extremely hard. Because of hardness, diamond . Diamond is a solid form of pure carbon with its atoms arranged in a crystal.
Solid carbon comes in different forms known as allotropes depending on the type of chemical bond. The two most common allotropes of pure carbon are diamond and lausannecongress2018.com graphite the bonds are sp 2 orbital hybrids and the atoms form in planes with each bound to three nearest neighbors degrees apart.
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