Help to Manage Alcohol Use Disorder Addiction is a chronic disease of the brain, affecting the reward and motivation centers, and for decades, scientists have argued about the genetic and hereditary components of addiction. Alcohol use disorder, the medical term for alcoholism and alcohol abuse, has been linked to some specific genes. Having a close relative, such as a parent or sibling, who struggles with alcohol use disorder increases the chances that a person will also struggle with the same addiction. While genetics and heredity are closely linked — because parents pass their genes down to their children, so children inherit the genes —from a medical perspective, there are some differences when discussing genetic versus hereditary diseases.
Phenotype[ edit ] A young Onge mother with her baby, Andaman Islands, British IndiaNegritos, specifically Andamanese, are grouped together by phenotype features.
Three physical features that distinguish the Andaman islanders include: Those of the Andaman islands have dark skin, are short in stature, and have "frizzy" hair.
These physical features are shared with Melanesians and believed to have been retained from the early dispersal of Homo sapiens along the coastal route. The skin color and stature can vary within a population. Therefore, hair characterization is very important in identifying the Andaman islanders.
The stature of the people within the population has changed over a relatively short time. Scientists believe the variation in stature can be contributed to about gene loci that influence height. Similarly, variation in skin color can be contributed to the great number of gene loci that affect the expression of that phenotype.
The isolation of the Andamanese people is what has kept the variation in phenotype within the population low.
The craniometric characters of the Andamanese are almost the same as those of South Asians. Therefore, South Asian and Andamanese people are most easily distinguished on the basis of stature, skin color, and hair. Dental morphology[ edit ] At first, the dental morphology of the Andamanese was in the middle between African and South Asian.
Further study suggests that the dental morphology is Sundadont in pattern; therefore most similar to the dental morphology of South-East Asians. When comparing dental morphology the focus is on overall size and tooth shape.
To measure the size and shape, Penrose's size and shape statistic is used. To calculate tooth size, the sum of the tooth area is taken.
Factor analysis is applied to tooth size to achieve tooth shape. Results have shown that tooth size of Andaman islanders is closest to the tooth size of Chinese and Japanese people. Therefore, the indodont dental morphology of the Andamanese indicates a retention of dental morphology from Southeast Asians in early-mid Holocene.
Additionally they have a narrow bi-iliac breadth and short upper limbs. The cranium is broad, high vaulted, and flat at the back. The small body size of the Andamanese results in a high surface-area-to-mass ratio, low rate of metabolism, and less heat produced.
This is a great adaptation in a hot environment. Genetics[ edit ] "Scarification pattern among the Great Andamanese in the late 19th century. Nothing is known of the origins or antiquity of this custom among the Andamanese.
The Andamanese are most genetically similar to the Malaysian Negrito tribe. An allele has been discovered among the Jarawas that is found nowhere else in the world.
Blood samples of Jarawas were collected and tested for Duffy blood group and malarial parasite infectivity. Results showed a total absence of both Fya and Fyb antigens in two areas Kadamtala and R.
K Nallah and low prevalence of both Fya antigen in another two areas Jirkatang and Tirur. A very high frequency of Fy a—b— in the Jarawa tribe from all the four jungle areas of Andaman Islands along with total absence of P. The Nicobarese also were observed to share close genetic relations with adjacent Indo-Mongoloid populations of Northeast India.
This suggests a relation between Andaman islanders and South Asians. The data received suggests an M31a lineage in South Asians.Digital Impact LLC produces large format, high-resolution, semi-permanent corrugated/mixed material POP & POS displays, product packaging and specialized permanent displays for companies of all backgrounds.
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Papers Using Special Mplus Features. References on this page are ordered by topic. References can also be viewed ordered by date.. Bayesian Analysis expand topic. Social work’s history in the field of alcoholism and alcohol abuse ranges from providing food, temporary shelter, and the encouragement to practice “temperance” in the early 20th century, to today’s sophisticated treatment approaches involving medication, consumer-driven supportive treatment, abuse group-specific targeted prevention, and inpatient and outpatient treatment of alcoholism.
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This is the traditional analysis of alcoholism in the Christian community. The Temperance Movement, the ultimate agenda of which was the Prohibition Act of , popularized the moral model. According to this perspective, the problem with alcohol dependency is the moral weakness of the abuser.
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